Among all cancers in women, he takes the first place. In most cases, breast cancer develops in the presence of precancerous changes. This is primarily a benign mammary dysplasia and papilloma ducts.
Breast cancer is represented macroscopically nodular and diffuse forms, as well as cancer of the nipple and the nipple of the field (Paget’s disease of the breast). For the nodular cancers are characterized by the node having a diameter of up to several centimeters. In some cases, a tight knot, is permeated with whitish layers tissue penetrating into the surrounding fatty tissue, in others – a soft, juicy on the cut, splits easily. Diffuse prostate cancer is covered for a considerable distance, the contours of the tumor are marked bad. Sometimes the cancer invades the skin and forms on the surface of decaying mushroom formation – a cancerous ulcer. In some cases, the tumor spreads along the surface of the breast and all the iron is covered with a dense shell.
In histological structure are the following types of breast cancer:
• noninvasive: intralobular and intraduct;
Noninvasive breast cancer can be intralobular (lobular carcinoma in situ), and intraduct (ductal carcinoma in situ).
Infiltrating (invasive) cancer is characterized by varying degrees of tissue and cell irregularities, which allowed to distinguish different degree of malignancy. This type of cancer include, in particular, infiltrating ductal and lobular carcinoma, which usually has the structure of scirrhus, as well as Paget’s disease.
Causes of Breast Cancer.
The causes of breast cancer often are hormonal changes in the body: the entry into menopause, when there is an active restructuring of the hormonal regulation of the woman, the ovaries lose their activity, decreased production of progesterone and estrogen, the body is going through, “hormonal crisis.” The mammary gland and endometrium (lining of the uterus) are most responsive to these changes, the breast tissue begins to dissolve and be replaced by fat.
Scientifically established that the female hormones estrogen-, plays a key role in the development of breast cancer. The excess hormones in the body creates a favorable background for developing the disease. The least active hormones estrogen behave during pregnancy and after birth – during breastfeeding. It is proved that the birth and prolonged breastfeeding (more than 1 year) to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. On the other hand, abortion lead to hormonal “explosion” in a woman’s body that can trigger the development of tumors. So far there is no consensus about the impact on the development of tumors of hormonal contraceptive drugs, but it is believed that these drugs reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, but increase the risk of developing cancer of the female genital organs, and osteoporosis. In addition predisposition to breast cancer can cause harmful environmental factors: the environment, as well as inflammatory diseases previously deferred breast – mastitis.
In addition, patients with a family of first-degree relatives with breast cancer (mothers and sisters) risk of developing a tumor increasing by more than half – familial forms of cancer.
Benign breast diseases such as fibrocystic breast disease, or fibroadenoz intraduct papillomatosis alone do not lead to cancer, but at the same time, create an unfavorable background for its development.
The cause of breast cancer may be the effects of radiation, such as irradiation of the chest for other diseases (lung tumors, the lymphatic system), prolonged and frequent chest X-ray studies on inflammatory diseases or pulmonary tuberculosis.
Constitutional obesity can lead to cancer of the breast and female reproductive system, with an excess fatty tissue in the body, it becomes a separate endocrine organ and begins to actively produce hormones-estrogens, whose action and provokes the development of tumors.
Symptoms of Breast Cancer
There are several forms of the growth of breast cancer:
– Nodular form, the most common, is characterized by a dense knot of 0.5 to 5 cm or more, it is characterized by all of the following symptoms;
– Diffuse. All of them are very aggressive, grow quickly, almost lightning speed, the tumor with no clear boundaries, “spreading” of the breast and skin. For the first two forms are characteristic signs of inflammation: pain of the breast, a bright red color of the skin it raises body temperature to 39 degrees C. In view of these symptoms often occur, and errors in diagnosis of patients treated for inflammatory diseases, which are named and are referred to these forms breast cancer. When tubular carcinoma breast cancer cover as a “skin” of its contracting and decreasing in size.
In some cases, breast cancer manifests in the form of metastases in the lymph nodes on the affected side, often fails to detect the tumor itself – show hidden breast cancer.
For small tumors of the breast, any symptoms arise. The most observant women and their husbands are able to detect tumor site in the gland by chance, but in a large breast to detect small size hard knot. Revealed a knot can be painful when pressed, round, smooth and agile, this speaks in favor of a benign tumor. Signs of malignancy other: a tight knot to touch the stone, its surface is uneven, it is stationary or slightly shifted, can be firmly fixed to the surrounding tissue or skin, usually painless, can reach a significant size (more than 3 – 5 cm and sometimes 10-15 cm).