Lung Cancer and Its Stages of Malignancy
Lung cancer, like any other malignancies, is the outcome of abnormalities the cell, which is the essential unit of life of the human body. Usually, the body keeps up a system of checking and balancing the cell growth in order that the cells can divide in producing fresh cells only if there is necessity of new cells. If the system on the checking and balancing of cell growth is disrupted it will result into the unrestrained division and propagation of cells which ultimately forms into a mass called tumor.
Tumor has two categories, the benign and the malignant tumors. Benign tumors normally may be removed and they are stationary in nature, they do not scatter to other organs or parts of the body. Malignant tumors grow assertively and attack other parts or tissues of the body, permitting the entry of cancer cells into the lymphatic system or to the bloodstream and some other locations in the human body.
Metastasis is the process of spreading the tumor cells and the spots of the growth of tumors at these distant sites are known as metastases. Because cancer of the lung tends to scatter or metastasize earlier once it is formed, it is extremely life-threatening malignancy and most hard to cure. While cancer of the lung may spread to some organs in the body, particular organs, like liver, brain bones and adrenal glands are the commonly the sites for the metastasis of lung cancer.
Tumor metastases consist of similar types of cells being the original tumor. The lung is extremely the common location for metastasis coming from tumors in some parts in the body. For example, when cancer of the prostate scatters through the bloodstream into the lungs, it could not be lung cancer but it is prostate cancer which metastasized in the lungs.
The exchange of gases between the blood and the air we are breathing if the primary role of lungs. Carbon dioxide is taken away from bloodstream through the lungs and the oxygen from respired air penetrates into the bloodstream. Bronchi are the main airways that enter the lungs which come up from trachea. The bronchi diverge into little airways known as bronchioles which end in minute sacs called alveoli in where the gas exchange happens. The walls of the lungs and chest are covered by a thin coating of tissue known as pleura.
Carcinoma of the lungs may arise in some parts of the lungs, but ninety to ninety five percent of lung cancers are considered to come from epithelial cells; the cells coating the smaller and larger airways (bronchi and bronchioles); because of this, cancer of the lungs are occasionally called broncogenic cancers or carcinomas.(carcinoma is another term for cancer). Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that arises from pleura or seldom from supporting tissue in the lungs, blood vessels for example.
Physicians can use various examinations to stage accurately lung cancer, which includes blood chemistry tests, CT scan, MRI, X-rays, PET scans and bone scans. Abnormal results in blood chemistry tests can signal metastases in the liver or bone and radiological process may document size of carcinoma also as it scatters.
Staging of lung cancer is essential to determine how the tumor can be treated, because lung-cancer therapies are done toward particular stages. Staging of cancers are also serious in the estimate of the prognosis of patient, having higher-stage carcinomas usually having worse diagnosis than lower-stage malignancy.
Cancers are assigned the following stages:
– Stage I – the cancer is limited to the lung only
– Stage II and III, the carcinoma is limited in the chest (with bigger and more persistent tumors classified to be stage III).
– Stage IV – the cancer has scattered from the chest and other parts of the body.